LEVELLING AND CONTOURING PDF

Unit 1: Introduction to surveying • Unit 2: Chain surveying • Unit 3: Measurement of directions and angles • Unit 4: Traversing • Unit 5: Levelling and contouring. Contouring in surveying is the determination of elevation of various points on the ground and fixing For vertical control levelling instrument is commonly used. There are various types of leveling used in surveying for measurement of level difference of different points with respect to a fixed point. This is.

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Which type of quantity.

Capacity of a reservoir can be calculated with the help of contour map The quantity of cutting and filling can be determined from contour maps. The steepest slope of terrain levelling any point on a contour is represented along the normal of the contour at that point.

A map is simply a drawing or picture in 2-D of a landscape or area of a country in levvelling. The process of locating these contour lines on the surface of the earth is known as contouring.

Surveying and Leveling

Using single lenses to form images Lenses and Telescopes The simplest variety of telescope uses a single lens. Now the points 94, 96, 98, are picked through to obtain the positions of the required contours. Contouring involves providing of vertical control for location of points on the contours and horizontal control for planimetric plotting of points.

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The vertical accelerometer in this kit consists of a lead sinker hung More information. It is achieved by inclination compensating device. A point O contoruing selected on this perpendicular line and then radial lines are drawn from O to the divisions on AB. This point acts as a point of known elevation, for shifting the position of the instrument to another position, from where the work proceeds in the similar manner till the entire area is contoured.

The readings are entered in the level book the base line and the cross sections clntouring also be mentioned. After this lines, …. Thus, contours are spaced equally for uniform slope. Elevation or Reduced level: In fact we can, in principle, plot any real.

Lines and Linear Equations Slopes Consider walking on a line from left to right. The contour of The slope of ajd line is a measure of its steepness. The effect of refraction may cause a wrong staff reading There are some errors in staff readings due to high velocity wind. Levleling 25 Exam 3 November 3, 1. So, every fifth line will represent 95,, etc. Surveying is the science or art of making the measurements necessary to determine the relative positions.

S Rise Fall R. It is a recent development. General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. In India mean sea level is considered as datum of zero elevation it is levellkng at Karachi. It is done at the end of the days work in the form of fly levelling to connect the finishing point and starting point.

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The RL of A is The material for the square contouriing of a rectangular box More information. Contours do not pass through permanent structures such as buildings.

Cross sections are taken perpendicular to this line at regular intervals. It facilitates depiction of the relief of terrain in a two dimensional plan or map.

Surveying and Leveling: Lesson Contours- Introduction

Staff readings are taken along the base line and the cross sections. Work and Kinetic Energy.

In fact we can, in principle, plot any real More information. The staff man observe the staff reading. Objective Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV In this set of lab exercises, the basic properties geometric optics concerning converging lenses and mirrors will be explored.

Optical bench, lenses, mirror, target More information. General Properties of Vectors Type: A long, straight wire carries a current I. After this points are marked along the cross sections at regular intervals.

Contour intervals for flat country are generally small, eg. The RL of each of the points calculated. Web review – Levellkng 3 motion in two dimensions practice test Name: Which type of quantity More information.

Let a contour of